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EFFECT OF CASSAVA FLOUR INCORPORATION IN THE FISH FEED EXTRUDATES

  • Project Research
  • 1-5 Chapters
  • Quantitative
  • Abstract : Available
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  • Reference Style: APA
  • Recommended for : Student Researchers
  • NGN 3000

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, has experienced significant growth over the past decades to meet the increasing global demand for seafood (FAO, 2020). The success of aquaculture operations relies on several factors, with one of the most critical being the formulation of high-quality fish feed. The composition and physicochemical characteristics of fish feed play a vital role in the growth, health, and overall performance of farmed aquatic species (Sehgal et al., 2020). In recent years, researchers have been exploring alternative ingredients to reduce reliance on conventional feed ingredients such as fishmeal. One such alternative is cassava flour, derived from the starchy tuberous root of the cassava plant (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Cassava is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, known for its abundance, low cost, and potential as a nutrient-rich ingredient for animal feed (Kartika et al., 2019).

The incorporation of cassava flour into fish feed formulations can significantly impact the physicochemical characteristics of the resulting extrudates. The extrusion process is commonly employed to produce fish feed pellets due to its numerous advantages, including improved feed digestibility, reduced anti-nutritional factors, and enhanced pellet durability (Mazurkiewicz et al., 2017). However, the inclusion of cassava flour as a substitute ingredient may introduce changes in the extrusion process and subsequently affect the physical and chemical properties of the extrudates.

Bulk density is a crucial physicochemical characteristic that provides insights into the compactness and uniformity of the pellets. Studies have shown that the bulk density of extrudates can be influenced by the type and concentration of ingredients, as well as the processing conditions during extrusion (Adhikari et al., 2020). Cassava flour, with its distinct properties, may affect the bulk density of fish feed extrudates due to differences in ingredient density and interactions between cassava flour and other feed components.

 

Water stability is another critical factor that determines the durability of fish feed pellets in aquatic environments. It refers to the ability of the pellets to maintain their integrity when submerged in water (Chen et al., 2021). The water stability of extrudates can be influenced by various factors, including the physical structure of the pellets, the presence of binding agents, and the interaction between ingredients during extrusion (Mazurkiewicz et al., 2017). Incorporating cassava flour into fish feed formulations may lead to changes in water stability, potentially resulting in improved or reduced pellet durability.

Moisture content is an essential parameter that affects the stability and shelf life of fish feed. The moisture content of extrudates is influenced by various factors, including the moisture content of the ingredients, the extrusion process conditions, and the water absorption capacity of the ingredients (Sehgal et al., 2020). Cassava flour, with its inherent moisture content and water-holding capacity, may affect the moisture content of fish feed extrudates. Understanding the impact of cassava flour incorporation on moisture content is crucial for optimizing the water-holding capacity of the pellets and ensuring their stability during storage and transportation.

The expansion ratio of extrudates measures the degree of puffing or expansion that occurs during the extrusion process. It is an important indicator of the physical structure and texture of the pellets (Mazurkiewicz et al., 2017). The expansion ratio can be influenced by various factors, including the starch content, fiber content, and processing conditions (Adhikari et al., 2020). Cassava flour, with its unique composition and characteristics, may result in alterations in the expansion ratio of fish feed extrudates.

Moreover, understanding the effect of incorporating cassava flour in fish feed extrudates is crucial for several reasons. Firstly, the rising cost and limited availability of fishmeal, a common ingredient in fish feed, have driven the search for alternative protein sources (FAO, 2018). Cassava flour offers a promising solution as it is a carbohydrate-rich ingredient that can partially replace the protein component in fish feed formulations (Kartika et al., 2019). By incorporating cassava flour, aquaculture producers can reduce their dependence on expensive and environmentally unsustainable fishmeal, thus improving the economic viability and ecological sustainability of fish farming operations.

 

Secondly, cassava is a widely cultivated crop in many developing countries, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America (Bechoff et al., 2019). Its utilization in fish feed formulations can promote local agricultural economies by creating additional market opportunities for cassava farmers. The availability of cassava flour as a feed ingredient can contribute to rural development and poverty alleviation, particularly in regions where cassava is a staple crop.

Furthermore, cassava flour is known for its rich nutritional composition. It contains carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers (Kartika et al., 2019). The inclusion of cassava flour in fish feed formulations can provide a balanced nutrient profile for farmed aquatic species. However, it is crucial to understand how the incorporation of cassava flour affects the physicochemical characteristics of fish feed extrudates to ensure that the nutritional integrity and digestibility of the feeds are maintained.

In recent years, several studies have investigated the effect of incorporating alternative ingredients in fish feed formulations. For example, research has explored the use of plant-based protein sources such as soybean meal, corn gluten meal, and pea protein in fish feed (Glencross et al., 2017; Ekmann et al., 2018). These studies have demonstrated that alternative ingredients can influence the physical properties of extrudates, including bulk density, water stability, moisture content, and expansion ratio.

Understanding the physicochemical characteristics of fish feed extrudates is essential as these properties can affect various aspects of aquaculture production. For example, bulk density influences the feed intake and feeding behavior of aquatic species, as well as the sinking or floating behavior of the pellets in different aquaculture systems (Adhikari et al., 2020). Water stability is crucial for the durability of the pellets during feeding, transportation, and storage, ensuring that the feed retains its nutritional value and minimizes wastage. Moisture content affects the stability, shelf life, and susceptibility to microbial growth, which can impact the overall quality and safety of the fish feed. The expansion ratio influences the texture and structure of the pellets, which in turn affects the palatability and digestibility of the feed for aquatic species.

The findings of this study have implications for the overall sustainability and environmental impact of the aquaculture industry. The incorporation of cassava flour as an alternative ingredient in fish feed formulations can contribute to reducing the reliance on finite and environmentally sensitive resources such as fishmeal. This can help alleviate pressure on global fish stocks and reduce the ecological footprint associated with aquaculture production (FAO, 2018). By utilizing cassava flour, which is abundant and renewable, aquaculture operations can enhance their sustainability credentials and contribute to the conservation of marine ecosystems.

Additionally, the utilization of cassava flour in fish feed formulations can have positive socioeconomic impacts, particularly in regions where cassava production is prominent. Cassava is a staple crop in many developing countries, and incorporating cassava flour as a feed ingredient can provide income diversification opportunities for small-scale farmers (Bechoff et al., 2019). This can contribute to poverty alleviation, rural development, and food security by creating additional markets for cassava farmers and strengthening local agricultural economies.

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

In spite of the potential, aquaculture in most developing nations including Nigeria is faced with inadequate supply of quality fish feed at economic price (Agbabiaka and Ezeafulukwe, 2013). This problem is worse during the dry season of the year when the cost of feedstuffs, most especially cereals, usually soared because the natural demand for out-weighed the supply (Agbabiaka and Ezeafulukwe, 2013). In an attempt to solving this problem of high feed cost, a lot of research efforts have been geared into alternative novel ingredients in formulating practical diets for farmed fish (Agbabiaka et al., 2012).

The incorporation of cassava in fish feed as a replacement for maize presents several challenges that need to be addressed in order to optimize its utilization.

These challenges include:

Anti-nutritional factors: Cassava contains anti-nutritional factors such as cyanogenic glucosides, tannins, and phytates, which can negatively affect nutrient utilization and fish growth (Adeparusi & Balogun, 2021). These compounds can interfere with digestion and absorption of nutrients, leading to reduced feed efficiency and growth performance.

Nutritional imbalances: Cassava has a different nutrient composition compared to maize, particularly in terms of protein content and amino acid profile (Arthorn et al., 2016; Tiamiyu et al., 2020). This can result in imbalances in the fish diet and may require additional supplementation to meet the specific nutritional requirements of different fish species.

Energy source limitations: Maize is a highly energy-dense ingredient in fish feed due to its high carbohydrate content. In contrast, cassava contains a higher proportion of non-starch polysaccharides, which are less efficiently utilized by fish (Dawood et al., 2017). This can lead to reduced energy availability and potentially affect fish growth and performance.

Processing challenges: The processing of cassava-based feed formulations can be more complex compared to maize-based formulations. Cassava requires additional processing steps, such as detoxification to remove cyanogenic compounds, and may require adjustments in extrusion conditions to achieve optimal pellet quality and stability (Adeparusi & Balogun, 2021).

Palatability and acceptability: Cassava-based diets may have different flavors, textures, and odors compared to maize-based diets, which can influence the palatability and acceptability of the feed for fish (Sarker et al., 2020). Fish may exhibit a preference for maize-based diets, potentially leading to reduced feed intake and growth performance.

Addressing these challenges is crucial to fully understand the feasibility and effectiveness of using cassava as a replacement for maize in fish feed formulations. By investigating and mitigating these problems, researchers and aquaculture practitioners can optimize the use of cassava and develop appropriate strategies for formulating nutritionally balanced and palatable fish feeds.

 

1.3 JUSTIFICATION

Firstly, the increasing demand for sustainable aquaculture practices necessitates the exploration of alternative feed ingredients. Maize, commonly used in fish feed formulations, is susceptible to price fluctuations and availability issues, which can impact the economic viability of aquaculture operations. Cassava, on the other hand, is a widely cultivated crop with the potential to serve as a cost-effective substitute for maize in fish feed formulations (Adeparusi & Balogun, 2021). Investigating the use of cassava as a maize replacement aligns with the goal of developing sustainable aquaculture practices and reducing dependency on traditional feed ingredients.

Secondly, cassava offers nutritional value and has the potential to meet the dietary requirements of farmed fish. Cassava is rich in carbohydrates and contains essential minerals and vitamins (Eromosele et al., 2018). By assessing the partial and complete incorporation of cassava in fish feed, the study can evaluate its impact on the growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, and nutrient digestibility of farmed fish. Understanding the nutritional implications of using cassava as a maize substitute is crucial for formulating balanced and nutritionally complete fish feeds (Tiamiyu et al., 2020).

Furthermore, investigating the physicochemical characteristics of fish feed pellets with partial and complete cassava incorporation is important for ensuring feed quality and palatability. Cassava's inclusion may affect pellet stability, durability, and digestibility (Adeparusi & Balogun, 2021). Evaluating these properties will help optimize cassava inclusion levels in fish feed formulations and ensure the production of high-quality feeds that promote fish health and growth.

 

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective is to study the effect of cassava flour incorporation in the fish feed extrudates

Specific objectives were:

  1. To determine the physical properties of fish feed extrudates.
  2. To examine the chemical properties of fish feed extrudates.



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