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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE 2010 AND 2022 ELECTORAL ACT OF NIGERIA

  • Project Research
  • 1-5 Chapters
  • Qualitative
  • Abstract : Available
  • Table of Content: Available
  • Reference Style: APA
  • Recommended for : Student Researchers
  • NGN 3000

TITLE PAGE

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Content

List of Tables

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

1.2 Statement of the problem

1.3 Objective of the study

1.4 Research Questions

1.5 Significance of the study

1.6 Scope of the study

1.7 methodology Approach

1.8 Limitations of the study

1.9 Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Conceptual framework

2.2 Theoretical review

2.3 Empirical review

CHAPTER THREE:

OVERVIEW AND HISTORY OF ELECTORAL ACT IN NIGERIA

3.1 Electoral Laws

3.2 History Of Electoral Act In Nigeria

3.3 Importance Of The Electoral Act In Nigeria

3.4 Challenges Of The Electoral Act Of Nigeria

CHAPTER FOUR: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE 2010 AND 2022 ELECTORAL ACT OF NIGERIA

4.1 2010 Electoral Act

4.2 2022 Electoral Act

4.3 Some Major Provisions/Amendments to the Electoral Act 2010 on the New Electoral Act 2022

4.3 Implications of the 2022 Electoral Act for Future Elections in Nigeria

4.4 A comparative analysis of the 2010 and 2022 electoral act of Nigeria

4.5 Differences between the 2010 and 2022 electoral acts of Nigeria

4.6 Contributions of the 2022 Electoral Acts to the 2023 General Election

4.7 Loopholes in the 2022 Electoral Acts

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendations

References

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 ​​​​​​​Background of the study

The election process in Nigeria has been the subject of close scrutiny and criticism all throughout its history. This process has been defined by a number of historical issues, including voter intimidation, violence, electoral fraud, and anomalies. Concerns have been raised about the democratic legitimacy of Nigeria's governing institutions as a result of these flaws, which have weakened the integrity and credibility of the elections (IFES, 2019). A significant influence on the manner in which electoral procedures are carried out and the results they produce is exerted by the legislative framework that governs elections. Several electoral laws have been adopted in Nigeria ever since the country made the transition to democratic governance in 1999. These laws are intended to regulate the conduct of elections and solve the deficiencies that were seen in prior electoral cycles. It is important to note that the Electoral Act of 2010 was a critical milestone in Nigeria's attempts to reform its electoral system. This act included measures that were intended to improve the voting process in terms of openness, fairness, and integrity (Momoh, 2015).
Nevertheless, in spite of these efforts, difficulties continued to exist, which required more changes to be implemented in order to enhance the voting system and better promote democratic values. The Nigerian government began a process to alter the current election rules, which ultimately resulted in the enactment of the 2022 election Act (Ojo, 2018). This was done in response to the rising number of requests for electoral reform and the need to address new difficulties. The Electoral Act of 2022 is a thorough reform of the electoral legislative framework. It introduces substantial revisions and innovations with the intention of resolving the inadequacies that were noticed in the Electoral Act of 2010, as well as enhancing the general conduct of elections in Nigeria (Onapajo & Onapajo, 2015).
The passage of the Electoral Act of 2022 has generated a significant amount of attention and discussion among many stakeholders, such as political parties, organisations representing civil society, electoral observers, and members of the foreign community. Some people have expressed their approval of the changes, stating that they are a step in the right direction towards improving democratic governance and election integrity. However, other people have expressed their worries over the actual implementation and enforcement of the new laws (Yusuf, 2017). In light of this, there is a pressing need for a comprehensive examination of the Electoral Acts of Nigeria, which were passed in 2010 and 2022, in order to evaluate the development of the legal framework that governs elections and the consequences that this framework has for democratic government. Such an analysis would give useful insights into the success of the changes made in the 2022 Electoral Act and their influence on key areas of the electoral process, such as electoral integrity, participation, inclusiveness, enforcement, and compliance (Ojo, 2018). Furthermore, such an analysis would provide valuable insights into the election process.

By performing a comparative analysis of the Electoral Acts of 2010 and 2022, the purpose of this research is to provide a contribution to the existing body of information on electoral reform in Nigeria and to give suggestions that are based on evidence for further improving the integrity and legitimacy of the election process. In addition, it is anticipated that the results of this research would contribute to the promotion of policy debates, provide direction to electoral administration authorities, and provide support for efforts to promote democratic governance in Nigeria. Therefore, the study looked into a comparative analysis of the 2010 and 2022 electoral act of Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Over the course of many years, the election process in Nigeria has been the subject of scrutiny and criticism, with issues being expressed over the degree of openness, impartiality, and adherence to democratic values by the electoral process. The adoption of electoral law is a significant factor that plays a significant impact in influencing the manner in which elections are conducted as well as the general democratic environment of the country (Ojo, 2018). In this context, a major change occurred with the adoption of the 2022 Electoral Act, which attempted to solve deficiencies noted in its predecessor, the 2010 Electoral Act. This act was intended to fix the problems that were found in the previous act. (Yusuf, 2017) Despite the fact that the 2022 Electoral Act has been introduced, there is still a need to critically examine the extent to which it has been effective in addressing the challenges that have been encountered in previous electoral processes. Additionally, it is necessary to determine whether or not it has been successful in enhancing the democratic credentials of Nigeria's electoral system. As a result, the purpose of this research is to carry out an exhaustive comparative analysis of the Electoral Acts of Nigeria in the years 2010 and 2022. Hence, the study look into a comparative analysis of the 2010 and 2022 electoral act of Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives of the study

Generally, the study looked into a comparative analysis of the 2010 and 2022 electoral act of Nigeria. The specific objectives is as follows

  1. Examine the key changes introduced by the 2022 Electoral Act and Challenges to the implementation of the 2022 Electoral Act.
  2. Assess the overview and history of electoral act in Nigeria, Historical Context of electoral act in Nigeria.
  3. A Comparative Analysis of the 2010 and 2022 Electoral act of Nigeria

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared to guide the study

  1. What are the key changes introduced by the 2022 Electoral Act and Challenges to the implementation of the 2022 Electoral Act?
  2. What is the overview and history of electoral act in Nigeria, Historical Context of electoral act in Nigeria?
  3. What is the comparative analysis of the 2010 and 2022 Electoral act of Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will be significant to the following

Informing Electoral Reforms: The study's findings will provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of the 2022 Electoral Act in addressing the shortcomings of its predecessor and improving the electoral process in Nigeria. These insights can inform future electoral reforms, guiding policymakers and legislators in developing more robust and effective electoral laws.

Academic Contribution: The study will add to the existing body of knowledge on electoral reform and democratic governance in Nigeria. By conducting a comparative analysis of the 2010 and 2022 Electoral Acts, the study can contribute valuable insights and perspectives to academic debates and discussions on electoral law, democratic transitions, and governance reforms.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on  a comparative analysis of the 2010 and 2022 electoral act of Nigeria. Hence, the study will examine the key changes introduced by the 2022 Electoral Act and challenges to the implementation of the 2022 Electoral Act, assess the overview and history of electoral act in Nigeria, Historical Context of electoral act in Nigeria and comparatively analyze of the 2010 and 2022 Electoral act of Nigeria.

1.7 Methodological Approach

Methodological approach  deals with the different ways or methods the researcher applied in order to carry out the research as well as the instrument used for gathering the data. There are several research methodologies appropriate for answering the research questions. The type of research methodology used in this research to gather data and relevant information is the historical research and the study will adopt descriptive method of data collection. This will involve the collection of materials from secondary sources, such as books, journal articles, magazines, internet sources, international and national conference proceedings, published and unpublished articles.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

The study's focus is limited to a comparative analysis of the 2010 and 2022 Electoral Acts of Nigeria. While this provides valuable insights into changes in the legal framework, it may not capture all factors influencing electoral processes, such as socio-economic dynamics, cultural factors, and political contexts. The availability and accessibility of data, especially regarding the implementation and enforcement of electoral laws, may pose challenges. Limited data availability could constrain the depth of analysis and the generalizability of findings, particularly in assessing the practical impact of the 2022 Electoral Act. 

The study's timeframe may limit the ability to conduct long-term assessments of the effectiveness of electoral reforms. Evaluating the sustained impact of the 2022 Electoral Act over time would require longitudinal data and extended periods of observation, which may not be feasible within the scope of this study. The study's methodology, such as reliance on document analysis and legal reviews, may have inherent limitations. While these methods provide valuable insights into legal provisions and textual changes, they may overlook the lived experiences of electoral stakeholders and the nuances of electoral practice. Electoral processes are influenced by a range of contextual factors, including political dynamics, institutional capacities, and socio-cultural norms.

The study's comparative analysis may not fully account for these contextual factors, which could impact the interpretation and generalizability of findings. Despite efforts to maintain objectivity, the interpretation of findings and analysis of electoral laws may be subject to bias or interpretation differences. Researchers' backgrounds, perspectives, and experiences could influence the study's conclusions, potentially leading to subjective interpretations.  External events or developments, such as changes in government, electoral disputes, or socio-political unrest, could impact the study's findings and conclusions. These external factors may introduce confounding variables that are beyond the researcher's control.  Acknowledging these limitations is essential for interpreting the study's findings accurately and understanding its implications. While efforts will be made to mitigate these limitations, researchers and readers should exercise caution in extrapolating the study's conclusions beyond its scope and context.

1.9 Definition of terms

Electoral Act: The Electoral Act refers to legislation enacted by the government of Nigeria to regulate the conduct of elections, including provisions related to voter registration, polling procedures, candidate eligibility, campaign finance, electoral disputes, and the role of electoral management bodies.

Comparative Analysis: Comparative analysis involves the examination and comparison of two or more entities, such as laws, policies, or systems, to identify similarities, differences, patterns, and trends. In the context of this study, it refers to the comparison of the 2010 and 2022 Electoral Acts of Nigeria to assess changes, amendments, and their implications for electoral processes.

Electoral Integrity: Electoral integrity refers to the adherence to democratic principles, fairness, transparency, and credibility in the conduct of elections. It encompasses aspects such as voter registration, polling procedures, vote counting, prevention of fraud and coercion, and the role of electoral management bodies in ensuring free and fair elections.

Democratic Governance: Democratic governance refers to a system of government characterized by principles of democracy, including rule of law, popular participation, accountability, transparency, and respect for human rights. It involves the exercise of political power through elected representatives, mechanisms for citizen engagement, and institutional mechanisms to ensure checks and balances.

Legal Framework: The legal framework refers to the set of laws, regulations, and institutional arrangements that govern electoral processes and democratic governance. It includes constitutional provisions, electoral laws, administrative regulations, judicial decisions, and the roles and responsibilities of electoral institutions and stakeholders in upholding democratic principles and procedures.





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