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CHARACTERISATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM DOOR HANDLES

  • Project Research
  • 1-5 Chapters
  • Qualitative
  • Library / Doctrinal
  • Abstract : Available
  • Table of Content: Available
  • Reference Style: APA
  • Recommended for : Student Researchers
  • NGN 3000

INTRODUCTION

Infectious diseases transmitted via hand contact have been a global health challenge. Gram positive and negative bacteria most especially are found to contaminate contact surfaces e.g; door handles, tables, chairs, windows etc. (Grace et al., 2018). Infectious diseases top the list for causes of death worldwide and contribution to morbidity and mortality cannot be readily quantified due to lack of data for most countries and it remains a global concern (Kones et al., 2017). Infections and/or diseases gotten by contact with environmental surfaces are common cold and sores, conjunctivitis, giardiasis, diarrhea, impetigo, meningitis, pneumonia etc. These diseases are caused by a myriad of bacterial organisms. (Krautkramer et al., 2021). Human hands have been implicated as the major transmitter of microorganisms to environmental surfaces (Tsaku et al., 2017). (Curtis et al., 2003) and (Fewtrell et al., 2007) reported that hands often act as vectors that carry disease-causing pathogens including bacteria and viruses from person to person either through direct contact or indirectly via surfaces. Defective personal hygiene can facilitate the transmission of some of these pathogenic bacteria found in the environment to human hands (Browne et al., 2017). Studies have reported that environmental surfaces which are often touched with hands have higher bacterial load when compared to toilet seats and restroom floor. This outcome might be due to the aggregate contamination of door handles which results from poor sanitary conditions (Fleetwood et al., 2019). Hand washing which is traditional was the first line of defense in preventing the spread of disease; it has been neglected and must be embraced vigorously by families, schools and healthcare professionals. However, many people seem to run water over their hands without using soap and some fail to wash their hands at all after leaving the restroom (Blum et al., 2019). Staphylococcus aureus is important pathogens of human and animals that cause both health care associated infections and community acquired infection (Poolman et al., 2018). It is a pathogen of greater concern because of virulence (Cheung et al., 2021). Its ability to cause a diverse array of life threatening infections and its ability to adapt to different environment condition (Reynolds et al., 2005).

Staphylococcus aureus has been found to be the most frequently isolated pathogen causing blood stream infections, skin and soft tissues infection, bones and joints infection, urinary tract infection and pneumonia (Klein et al., 2013). Door handles is one of the most implicated probable source of this infections caused by S. aureus (Nworie et al., 2012).

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common microorganisms frequently associated with various diseases, ranging from mild infections of the skin to life-threatening endocarditis, chronic osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia (Murray et al., 2005). During the mid-20th century, the introduction and use of antibiotics such as penicillin and methicillin proved successful against S. aureus infections. However, the bacterium quickly acquired resistance to these antibiotics posing an enormous challenge to both veterinary and human health clinicians (Brouillette et al.,2005). Treatment for this bacterium is a concern with the emergence and spread of penicillin-resistant S. aureus. Various antibiotics have proven effective in the treatment of serious staphylococcus aureus infections (McGuinness et al., 2017). Moreover, in the last 20 years, S. aureus clinical isolates with reduced sensitivity to antibiotics and less frequently, with maximum resistance to some antibiotics have emerged (Hidayat et al., 2006).

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Antibiotic resistance has become a major threat to human health worldwide, but its spread through the environment is often overlooked. This study aimed to determine the presence of Staphylococcus aureus on doorknobs and their transmission in the environment (Mountain Top University) from human waste, their prevalence and potential for transmission to microbes present in the environment posing a serious threat to public health.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study was therefore designed to determine the presence of Staphylococcus aureus on door handles/knobs in the college of Basic and Applied Sciences, Mountain Top University in order to provide scientific information that would have policy relevance, and which will aid the hand washing programmes in Nigeria.





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