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PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND ANTIULCER STUDIES ON THE LEAF OF LEUCAS MARTINICENSIS (JACQ) R.Br. (LAMIACEAE)

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  • Reference Style: APA
  • Recommended for : Student Researchers
  • NGN 3000

ABSTRACT

Leucas martinicensis is an annual herb which is used for repellant of mosquito. It has minty odor. It is an erect plant which is usually unbranched, with length of up to 1m, which is finely hairy. The plant are widely used in Northern part of Nigeria and it has been exploited for both its medicinal and economic properties with no scientific justification about its antiulcer activities. It is traditionally used for the management of a number of ailments including the treatment of diarrhea, skin rashes, epilepsy, gastroenteritis, cholera, relieving pain during pregnancy and as anti-malaria. The pharmacognostic studies and antiulcer activities of the leaves of Leucas martinicensis (Lamiaceae) was carried out to validate the ethno medicinal claimed of the leaves in treating ulcer. Evaluation of the fresh, powdered leaves and phytochemicals screening were carried out. The acute toxicity and antiulcer properties revealed the leaves potential as source of drug for further utilizations. The microscopical characters and physical constants of the leaf were determined, which revealed the presence of some prominent features like multicellular covering trichomes and diacytic stomata. The physical constants evaluated showed moisture content 8.9% of Leucas martinicensis, total ash value of 6.8 %, water soluble ash of 6.0 %, acid insoluble ash of 3.5 %, ethanol extractive value of 16.0 % and water extractive value of 20.3 %. Phytochemical analysis of the leaves extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, saponins, triterpenes and steroids and anthracenes. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was found to be greater than 3000 mg/kg when administered orally in rats and considered practically non-toxic. The extract demonstrated protective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcer lesions in albino rats. This is evidenced in the significant and increased preventive index with doses (300, 600 and 900 mg/kg) of the extract. The methanol extract was observed to have the best activity compared to organic solvent ix fractions. The results provided some pharmacognostic standards for proper identification of the plant and scientific basis for the traditional use of the leaf in the treatment of ulcer.




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