0704-883-0675     |      dataprojectng@gmail.com

TOXICITY AND IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF THE STEM BARK OF LANNEA ACIDA A. RICH. (ANACARDIACEAE) IN WISTAR RATS

  • Project Research
  • 1-5 Chapters
  • Abstract : Available
  • Table of Content: Available
  • Reference Style: APA
  • Recommended for : Student Researchers
  • NGN 3000

ABSTRACT

Lannea acidaA. Rich.belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae; and the bark, leaves and roots have been reported to possess many medicinal properties, including immunomodulatory activity.Despite this widespread belief, data on the immunomodulatory properties and safety of this plant is still lacking. The aim of this work was to determine the toxicity and immunomodulatory properties of the stem bark of Lannea acida in Wistar rats. Methanol extract of Lannea acida A. Rich.was screened for phytochemical properties using standard methods. The acute and the subacute (28-day daily repeated dose) toxicity studies were performed using the OECD Fixed Dose Procedure guideline 420 and OECD guideline 407 respectively. To evaluate the immunomodulatory properties, 12 male and 12 female Wistar rats were pre-sensitised with 0.1ml sheep red blood cell intraperitoneally, and subsequently divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each (3 males, 3 females). The first group served as the control while the remaining three groups received daily oral doses of 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight of methanol extract of L. acida, respectivelyfor 14 days.The humoral response (IgM and IgG) to sheep red blood cells was determined by ELISA method and read by microplate reader. The cellular immune response was determined by estimation of the CD4+ and CD8+T-cell counts using flow cytometer, and measuring the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction from the paw thickness of rats given subcutaneous injection of SRBC. The methanol extract of the stem bark of L. acida was found to contain carbohydrate, reducing sugars, alkaloids, glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides and tannins; and had an acute lethal dose that was> 3,000 mg/kg. The 28-day oral toxicity study showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the relative organ weight percent of the spleen and kidneys of rats that received a dose of 1,000 mg/kg body weight viii compared with the control; and a significant decrease(p < 0.05) in the serum potassium levels across all the doses compared with the control. There was also a statistically significant increase(p < 0.05) in serum alanine transaminase level at the dose of 500 mg/kg.Histological examination of the organs following 28-day daily oral administration showed hepatic sinusoidal vascular congestion and peri-portal inflammation; splenic red pulp hemorrhage; kidney glomerular necrosis and tubulointerstitial inflammation; and thymocyte depletion in the experimental groups compared to the control.There wassignificant decrease(p < 0.05)in the levels of serum immunoglobulin at the doses of 1,000 mg/kg for IgMand the doses of 500 and 1,000mg/kg for IgG. In conclusion, methanol extract of the stem bark of L. acida has relatively low acute toxicity but when given as a daily dosing for 28 days, it has hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and immunotoxic effects and hence, potential for multiorgan toxicity when employed for sub-acute and chronic uses.




FIND OTHER RELATED TOPICS


Related Project Materials

INVESTIGATION OF STUDENTS READING HABITS ON THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN EXTERNAL EXAMINATIONS

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the relationship between study habits and students’ performance in senior seconda...

Read more
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION (ECE) POLICIES IN NIGERIA:CHALLENGES, SUCCESSES, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES.

Abstract: This research investigates the implementation of early childhood education (ECE) policies in Nigeria, f...

Read more
ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF POS BUSINESSES IN REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN ASABA

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out on the impact of POS businesses in reducing unemployment rate in Nigeria using Asaba...

Read more
STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING AND PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMES)

ABSTRACT

The major objective of this study is to examine the effect...

Read more
EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION ON CHILDREN'S RIGHTS AWARENESS

 ABSTRACT: Exploring the impact of early childhood education on child...

Read more
EXPLORING THE EFFECTS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION ON SOCIAL JUSTICE ADVOCACY

ABSTRACT: This study explored the Effects of Early Childhood Education on Social Justice Advocacy. The objec...

Read more
ASSESSING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON NIGER DELTA DURING 7TH AND 8TH NATIONAL ASSEMBLY

Background to the study

The legislature is considered one of the most basic structures in any political system. Hence, A...

Read more
STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

Background of the Study

Over a century ago, Nigeria was an agro-economy-based nation. Then Nigerian eco...

Read more
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE BROADCAST MEDIA IN THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST CHILD LABOUR AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to assess the broadcast media in the campaign against child labour...

Read more
EFFECT OF TAX EVASION AND AVOIDANCE ON REVENUE GENERATION IN NIGERIA

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Tax is one of the main source of Government Revenue. It is a strong social and...

Read more
Share this page with your friends




whatsapp