- Project Research
- 1-5 Chapters
- Quantitative
- Correlation
- Abstract : Available
- Table of Content: Available
- Reference Style: APA
- Recommended for : Student Researchers
- NGN 3000

**Background to the Study**

Mass failure in a course happens when a substantial percentage (about 70%) of students who enrol for a certain examination fail that test. According to research, there are several reasons that lead to widespread student failure in school, which has been more prevalent in scientific courses, mathematics, and additional mathematics. Many variables lead to student failure, including but not limited to self-esteem, instructor incompetence, students' mentality for a topic, emotional difficulties, insufficient instructional resources for teaching and learning, the teacher's technique of teaching, and so on.

The hunt for the causes of low academic accomplishment in advanced mathematics, according to Aremu and Sokan (2003), is never-ending. Some of the elements they discovered were students' motivational orientation, self-esteem/self efficacy, emotional difficulties, study habits, teacher consultation, and bad interpersonal interactions.

Further Mathematics is a highly respected course with a demanding curriculum. It is particularly popular among students interested in pursuing advanced and undergraduate degrees in Math, Science, Engineering, Economics, Business, and Computer Science. Further mathematics is a relatively recent subject in the Nigerian educational system. One of the proposals made at a National Mathematics Centre (NMC) national workshop on policies and methods for enhancing mathematics teaching and learning at all levels was to include it in the school curriculum (Odili & Vincent 2011). At this workshop, it was resolved, among other things, that there should be two concurrent mathematics classes or streams at the secondary school level: the Senior Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum (SSMC) and the Further Mathematics Curriculum (FMC) (FMC). This decision was taken in response to major concerns voiced about the lack of coverage in the draft of the New General Mathematics Curriculum (1978). (NCCA 2005). Furthermore, there was a strong belief that there was a need to teach meaningful mathematics to students of all sorts, including those who would and would not utilize mathematics in their future studies or occupations (Odili, 2006). Further Mathematical introduces Senior Secondary School pupils to Advanced Level mathematics topics in order to prepare them for mathematics or mathematics-related courses at the next level of education. While all students must provide mathematics, only a tiny fraction of scientific students must also give Further Mathematics. The explanation is not improbable. According to the National Council for Curriculum Assessment, many students consider mathematics as a difficult subject, and advanced mathematics as an exclusive subject for only the brightest students (NCCA 2005). According to Akinsola and Ogunleye (2003), students will be more interested in mathematics if they believe it to be entertaining, practical, and relevant to their daily life.

It is fair to suppose that students who offer additional mathematics have a greater probability of succeeding, especially in mathematics, than students who do not offer further mathematics. In education, the phrase "opportunity to learn" is used. Ground (Cebulla, 2000) defined learning opportunities in terms of additional math and science as the amount to which pupils have the possibility or chance to acquire more arithmetic or any of the science courses. This has a direct influence on pupils' future success in mathematics and science. According to Brophy (2000), in order to optimize learning chances, purposeful attempts should be made to extensively teach the information and skills required, as well as to cover the syllabus in a comprehensive manner. As a result, pupils who provide more mathematics have a greater probability of acquiring more mathematical ideas than those who do not. Many scientific areas, such as physics, biology, and chemistry, are inextricably linked. This shows that there are overlaps or areas of interference between the content sections. Both physical chemistry and contemporary physics study atomic structure. Many laboratory instruments that are employed in one topic can also be utilized in another. Many issues in science, on the other hand, are incomprehensible without a thorough knowledge of mathematics.

The dearth of competent individuals needed to satisfy the quotas for mathematics and mathematics-related courses in our institutions is the outcome of a trend of low academic performance in advanced mathematics (Kabir, 2005). Because poor levels of subsequent mathematical accomplishment have become a major source of worry, it is more vital than ever to investigate potential explanations.

**1.2 Statement of the Problem**

Further Mathematics is also the scientific language and the primary intellectual discipline of technological cultures (Kalejaye, 1985). A student needs have a rudimentary grasp of mathematics to comprehend density, such as subject change, which arises in significant courses such as Ecology in Biology, diffusion in Chemistry, and floatation in Physics. Further Mathematics and Physics cover a vector quantity not included in the Ordinary Level Mathematics Syllabus. As a result, science students interested in studying further mathematics have a unique chance to understand vector quantities in both physics and mathematics.

The National Mathematical Centre, Abuja (NMC, 2009) has effectively explored the causes and treatments for abysmal failure in WAEC, SSCE, and JAMB advanced Mathematics tests in an effort to restructure Mathematics teaching and learning in secondary schools. Poor performance in future Mathematics promotion/public examinations has been linked to instructors' teaching practices rather than the content of the school Mathematics curriculum (NMC, 2009). This empirical foundation served as the impetus for the Center's Mathematical Improvement Programme (MIP) initiative, which aimed to create a new teaching style to enhance students' mathematics performance. Bolaji (2005) revealed that the teachers' methods of teaching and personalities accounted for a major share of the students' positive attitude toward further mathematics in a research on the influence of teachers' methods of teaching and personalities on students' attitudes toward further mathematics.

Students' proficiency in advanced mathematics at the Senior School level deteriorates over time (Oyedeji,1998). Many additional studies have revealed that pupils score badly in subsequent mathematics in both the qualifying test (SSCE) and placement exams such as the University Matriculation Examination (UME) (Ukeje, 1991).

The purpose of this study is to see if science students who offer further mathematics do better in physics and if failure in further mathematics leads to bad physics performance. This study was necessary since there has been little attention paid to mass failure in further mathematics and its influence on students' performance in Physics.

**1.3 Purpose of the Study**

The main purpose of this study is to carry out a critical analysis of mass failure in future in further mathematics and performance in physics in secondary school in Nigeria. Specifically, the study seeks to:

- To investigate the causes and effect of mass failure in Further Mathematics.
- To investigate the effects of (1) will have on students’ performance in Physics.
- To examine if there are sufficient Further Mathematics teachers and instructional materials for teaching of Further Mathematics.
- To investigate if the students socio- economic background affect them in the study of Further Mathematics.
- To investigate if the attitude and the interest of the students towards the nature of Further Mathematics contribute deeply to their mass failure in SSCE.

**1.4 Research Questions**

The following questions guide this research:

- What are the causes of mass failure in Further Mathematics?
- What effects will mass failure in Further Mathematics have on students’ performance in Physics?
- Are there sufficient Further Mathematics teachers and instructional materials for teaching of Further Mathematics?
- Does the students socio- economic background affect them in the study of Further Mathematics?
- Does the attitude and the interest of the students towards the nature of Further Mathematics contribute deeply to their mass failure in SSCE?

**1.5 Statement of the Hypotheses**

The study will test the validity of the following null hypotheses:

**H0****1**** : **There is no relationship between insufficient Further Mathematics teachers and students mass failure in Further Mathematics

**H0****2**** : **There is no relationship between mass failure in Further Mathematics and poor performance in Physics.

**1.6 Significance of the Study**

Science has become an integral part of the society in the current world. The quality of education in a country will determine the kind of science and technological development that the society will achieve. Science and technology is no doubt one of the most important components in the fight against poverty, it is quite obvious that science subjects are absolutely necessary for development of science and technology, which is an important component, if we have to achieve our national goals and targets in alleviating poverty.

This study focused on identifying the major causes of mass failure in future in further mathematics and performance in physics in secondary school and suggest the remedies to be taken in order to rescue the situation. This study also play an important role to the curriculum planners and implementers since it can guide them in identifying which areas to put more emphasis on in order to improve performance of Further Mathematics and Physics in secondary schools.

This research can also help to identify the major factors that lead to poor performance of science subjects in secondary schools in Lugbe, FCT, Abuja and Nigeria at large. The finding of this evaluation study will shed light on how the real situation is and give valuable recommendations according to the findings. Several research works has been reported and proposed recommendations, however the situation is getting even worse over the years meaning that the best feasible and sustainable solutions must be found.

With the awareness this study will create, the student might put up a positive attitude towards Further Mathematics and Physics which will increase their performance and enhance higher grades in senior secondary school certificate examination. Teachers will also be able to adjust their teaching methods and offer remedial helps where they find out that students are putting up a low attitude. Government will also see the need of guidance and counseling in each schools, the ministry of education and curriculum planners for better organization of senior subjects in education.

Further more, this study will add to existing literature on this topic and will serve as a reference material for further research on this topic or related domain.

**1.7 Scope of the Study**

This study focuses on unveiling the critical analysis of mass failure in future in further mathematics and performance in physics in secondary school in Nigeria focusing mainly on SSS2 students in Lugbe FCT Abuja. Also, this study will look into the causes and effect of mass failure in Further Mathematics in secondary schools in Lugbe FCT, Abuja. The study will further examine the effect mass failure in Further Mathematics will have on the students performance in Physics.

This study will also investigate if there are sufficient Further Mathematics teachers and instructional materials for teaching of Further Mathematics in secondary schools in Lugbe FCT, Abuja. Also, this study will examine if the students socio- economic background affect them in the study of Further Mathematics.

This study further examine if the attitude and the interest of the students towards the nature of Further Mathematics contribute deeply to their mass failure in SSCE.

The findings of this study will be limited to Secondary Schools in Lugbe, FCT, Abuja. Two selected secondary schools in Lugbe, FCT, Abuja serve as the enrolled participants for this study. These selected secondary schools are Government Science Secondary School, Lugbe, and Redeemer's Private Secondary School, Lugbe.

The major limitation to the study are insufficient fund to involve many respondents to this research and carry out other logistics required in this study. Also, time factor was another constraint where the researcher had to share available time with academic work and conducting of this research within the given time frame.

Inadequate materials needed for the success of this study was another factor that limited this study. The sources for literature and conducting of interviews in order to validate this research posed a barrier to the researcher.

Furthermore, due to the current state of Coronavirus pandemic in the country that has limited most inter-state travel, this posed a major constraint to this research because the researcher had to observe all the necessary Covid-19 precautions. Also, limiting this study to only to Lugbe, FCT, Abuja instead of involving all the 36 states in Nigeria was another limitation of this study.

**1.8 Assumptions**

- Mass failure in Further Mathematics will not have negative effect on the performance of students in Physics.
- Insufficient Further Mathematics teachers and instructional materials for teaching of Further Mathematics leads to mass failure in Further Mathematics.
- Socio- economic background of students does not affect them in the study of Further Mathematics.
- The attitude and the interest of the students towards the nature of Further Mathematics contribute deeply to their mass failure in SSCE.

**1.9 Operational Definitions of Terms**

** Student: **Is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution.

** Students’ academic performance: **The outcomes of the teaching and learning process in terms of knowledge and skills in students acquires from schools as measures by scores obtained in Certificate for Secondary Examinations (CSEE).

** Academic performance**: Refers to achievement in standardized tests or examinations shown by a student.

** Teaching and learning materials:** In this study teaching and learning materials mean all materials that facilitate the teaching and learning in secondary schools. They include laboratories with its chemical and equipment, text books used for teaching by the teachers and those used by the students for reference. Other materials are projectors, classrooms, desks, libraries as well as syllabus. Big charts, wall maps, photographs are also teaching and learning materials.

** Performance:** To perform is to take a complex series of actions that integrate skills and knowledge to produce a valuable result.

** Secondary school:** Is a school which provides secondary education after primary school education.

** Further Mathematics:** Further Mathematics is the title given to a number of advanced secondary mathematics courses. The term "Higher and Further Mathematics", and the term "Advanced Level Mathematics", may also refer to any of several advanced mathematics courses at many institutions.

** Physics: **Physics is the branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy. The subject matter of physics includes mechanics, heat, light and other radiation, sound, electricity, magnetism, and the structure of atoms.

** Failure: **Failure is the state or condition of not meeting a desirable or intended objective, and may be viewed as the opposite of success. The criteria for failure depends on context, and may be relative to a particular observer or belief system.

** Mass Failure: **A situation where above average number of students failed in examination

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