0704-883-0675     |      dataprojectng@gmail.com

AN EXAMINATION OF STUDENTS PARTICIPATION OF THE 18+ WARNING SIGN IN ALCOHOL ADVERTISEMENTS IN NIGERIA TERTIARY INSTITUTION

  • Project Research
  • 1-5 Chapters
  • Quantitative
  • Simple Percentage
  • Abstract : Available
  • Table of Content: Available
  • Reference Style: APA
  • Recommended for : Student Researchers
  • NGN 3000

Background to the Study

The most widely used substance among teenagers is alcohol. It's a common toxin that may affect practically any organ or system in the body if consumed in excess (Anderson, 2007). As a result of intoxication, alcohol intake involves a risk of negative health and social effects; it is responsible for a variety of social, health, and economic problems, which are especially prominent among teenagers (Australian Medical Association, 2012). According to Chikere and Mayowa (2011), the consequences produced by excessive alcohol intake include widespread diseases such as esophageal cancer, liver cancer, murder, epilepsy, and liver cirrhosis.

In previous decades, alcohol drinking was mostly utilized for entertainment during ceremonies, but in Nigeria today, the quantity and rationale for consumption are fast changing (Chikere & Mayowa, 2011). Nigeria's new trend of alcohol use among young people nowadays adds to the country's placement among the thirty nations with the highest per capita alcohol consumption in the world (World Health Organization, 2004). The quantity of alcohol used by Nigerian teenagers appears to be contributing to a rise in the burden of alcohol-related disorders such as addiction, poor academic performance, dangerous driving, and health problems, to name a few (Dumbili, 2013). Despite efforts to prevent underage drinking, underage drinking remains a public health issue (Komro & Toomey, 2002).

Because advertising has been linked to underage alcohol purchase and use, the function of advertising as a possible stimulant to alcohol intake and as a contributor to alcohol abuse has been disputed in recent years (Nelson, 2001). Arens (2006) described advertising as "a organized and constructed non-personal delivery of information about items (goods, services, and ideas) by identifiable sponsors, generally paid for and usually persuasive in character, across multiple media" (p. 7). Advertising gives the sense that young people may mentally connect to pleasant dream locales, lifestyles, and personality traits by spending a modest amount of money. Advertising may provide young people with knowledge about the expense of alcohol and its advantages, and the information provided by advertising can lead to more favorable expectations about alcohol, which might influence real or planned use behavior (Saffer, 2002).

The impact of alcohol advertisement on teenage alcohol use behavior can be shown. Advertisements for alcohol grow appealing to young people between the ages of ten (10) and fourteen (14). (14). Exposure to alcohol advertising, on the other hand, increases the possibility that an adolescent will begin to consume alcohol, and if such an adolescent has already begun to consume alcohol, consumption is likely to grow (Bouwmeester, n.d; Jones & Gordon, 2013). Alcohol commercials are viewed by adolescents on a variety of communication medium, but television advertising appears to be the most effective form of selling alcohol since children and youths watch television more than any other sort of media. The Australian Medical Association (AMA) published a report in 2012. Additional possibilities for marketing alcoholic beverages include radio advertising and product placement in television programming (Australian Medical Association, 2012). Children have been found to prefer alcohol commercials among the advertisements to which they have been exposed, and their preference for alcohol advertisements has been connected to young alcohol intake (Gunter, Hansen and Touri, 2008). This was reaffirmed by Anderson (2007), who stated, "The teenage brain undergoes considerable growth, making adolescents more sensitive to impulsivity with increased sensitivity to pleasure and reward." Young individuals who already have alcohol-related issues are more likely to be sensitive to alcohol advertising, with their sensitivity rising as their alcohol intake increases. Adolescents' susceptibility is exploited by alcohol advertising, which shapes their attitudes, beliefs, and expectations regarding alcohol use, influencing their drinking decisions. This susceptibility is worsened by young people's extensive exposure to commercial messaging, which occurs not just via traditional media but also through social media (p. 10).

Because of their physical size and lack of experience with alcohol, young people are at risk for alcohol-related damage. The more alcohol drunk throughout youth, the higher the danger of becoming a young adult (Anderson, 2007). The 18+ symbol appears on the majority of alcohol ads on television, newspapers, magazines, and even billboards, indicating that alcohol use is only for those aged eighteen (18) and over. Based on the enticing quality of alcohol marketing to young people, there is empirical evidence indicating there is a link between alcohol commercials and positive attitudes regarding alcohol among young people. According to Saffer (2002), alcohol advertising influences knowledge, attitude, and intentions to drink, all of which are thought to influence drinking, implying that there is a positive relationship between alcohol advertising and consumption.

According to Grube (2004), a huge number of alcohol advertising associate drinking with desired outcomes such as success, enjoyment, relaxation, romance, and adventure, as well as with prized personal traits such as elegance, friendliness, and physical attractiveness. Alcohol commercials with these characteristics appeal to young people, and they are drawn to them. The substance of advertising is linked to young people's expectations about the usage of alcohol as a result of the appeals. However, there is substantial evidence that some alcohol brands that appeal to young people are manufactured and aimed at them (Anderson, 2007). There's also evidence that the cultural beliefs and symbols utilized in alcohol ads have a strong impact on college students (Anderson, 2007). Youths are particularly drawn to aspects like music, story, characters, and comedy, among other things (Anderson, 2007).

Young individuals might have a variety of reactions to alcohol advertising, which may include awareness, perception, recognition, and restraint. Attitudes toward advertising and perceptions of their messaging can be crucial variables in mediating the effects of commercials after exposure. Young individuals may notice and identify alcohol commercials and the brands they promote long before they start drinking alcoholic drinks (Gunter et al., 2008). There is worry that exposing young individuals to alcohol marketing may foster favorable attitudes about drinking and contribute to the initiation of early alcohol intake. However, there is a link between alcohol advertisement and the commencement or onset of alcohol intake in young adults. Alcohol advertisement influences juvenile drinking decisions by shaping their attitudes, beliefs, and expectations about alcohol use (Gunter et al., 2008; Chen, Grube Bersamin, Waiters & Keefe, 2005).

Advertising practice in Nigeria is governed by the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria, a statutory regulatory authority (APCON). The rules of the advertising code of ethics apply to all forms of media, including electronic, print, outdoor, and even theatres and viewing centers. Article 32-37 of the 5th code of advertising practice contains this rule of behavior. According to these articles, advertisements for alcoholic beverages are not to be shown in children's religious or sporting programs, children, athletes, or women are not to be used as models, religious or medical suggestions or connotations are not to be used, and advertisements for alcoholic beverages are not to be placed within a 200-meter radius of any place of worship, hospitals, schools, or motor parks (APCON, 2012).

Despite APCON's efforts to limit drinking among teenagers and the underage, alcohol commercials continue to appeal to kids and are even aimed at them. The fact that most of these young people are exposed to alcohol advertising on the internet demonstrates the flaws in the present policy, since it may be impossible to avoid underage exposure to alcohol advertising (Alcohol Concern, 2013). With the current pace of events, which may eventually result in a total ban on alcohol advertising, the alcohol industry has devised an industry-based rule, the 18+ sign, to deter underage drinking. The 18+ symbol denotes that alcohol use is restricted to those aged eighteen (18) and over. As a result, the purpose of this study is to find out how university undergraduates in Southwestern Nigeria feel about the 18+ sign in alcoholic beverage marketing.

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite legislation protecting kids and minors from alcohol advertising, young people are constantly exposed to large levels of alcohol advertising on television, radio, the internet, and in print media, whether or not they are specifically targeted by advertisers (Smith and Foxcroft, 2009). Drinking among youngsters and those under the age of 21 has been a major public health problem since it may lead to a variety of bad outcomes such as alcohol addiction, accidents, poor academic performance, hazardous sex, injuries, and even early death. The younger young individuals start drinking and the more they drink at a young age, the more likely they are to get addicted to alcohol and suffer alcohol-related damage (Anderson, 2007).

Despite the fact that commercials for alcoholic drinks appear on television, in print, and even on billboards, most of these young individuals appear to be unaware of the 18+ sign, which is meant to serve as a barrier to the underage. Many young individuals begin drinking at an early age (Australian Medical Association, 2012). Another source of worry about alcohol advertising is that it typically associates drinking with themes like enjoyment, companionship, and comedy. Much of this alcohol advertising goes beyond identifying the exact features of the alcoholic beverage to portraying a glamorous and enjoyable image that may be enticing to teenagers, especially those under the age of 21. Young people and adolescents, who should be informed about the negative effects of alcohol intake on health and academic performance, make up the majority of university undergraduates in Nigeria today. The aim of this study was on how these university freshmen reacted to the 18+ sign in commercials for alcoholic drinks (Trophy, 33 larger beer, Golgberg, Stout, Heinekens, and so on).

 

1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to ascertain the attitude of university undergraduates to the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements. The specific objectives are to:

  1. To evaluate the effectiveness of 18+ warning sign placed on alcoholic drinks as a form of risk communication among Students.
  2. To assess the risk perceptions of Students towards 18+ warning sign in alcohol.
  3. To find out the attitude of students with regards to alcohol use

 

1.4 Research Question

  1. Is 18+ warning sign placed on alcoholic drinks as a form of risk communication effective among Students?
  2. What was the risk perception of Students towards 18+ warning sign in alcohol?
  3. What was the attitude of students towards alcohol consumption?

1.5 Significance of the Study

In understanding the influence of the risk communication strategy under study, risk communicators in different fields would be able to come up with better risk communication strategies. The findings of this study enable the Nigerian government and NAFDAC to draw conclusions regarding the behaviour of alcohol consumption among the youth at the university. These findings also would provide a resourceful reference for policy makers and other major stakeholders with regards to finding effective measures to curb the vice. The findings of this study would fill the knowledge gap, which is apparent from literature review with regard to the study of the effectiveness of 18+ warning sign as risk communication. Most studies regarding alcohol use and abuse in Nigeria have focused on school going children and other special groups. There was need to carry out research targeting students at the university and other tertiary academic institutions.

The findings of this study would enable Schools to understand the problem of excessive alcohol consumption among their students. The findings would also shed light on the challenges of curbing the vice and highlight the depth of the problem. With this resource, they could develop effective risk communication strategies tailor-made for their students.

 

1.6 Scope of the Study

The population for this study was drawn from Nigerian public and private universities. Most youth in Nigeria get the opportunity to explore their freedom once they join the university or college. This freedom gives them the chance to indulge in alcohol consumption. Public universities in Nigeria have students from varied socio-economic groups and cultures. The target population was drawn from Universities in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo, in South West, Nigeria.

1.7 Limitations and Delimitations of the Study

Being a study about a sensitive subject area, it was anticipated that most respondents would shy off from providing truthful and accurate information. To combat this, the study employed the help of research assistants who are students at the university. The respondents found it easier to open up and converse freely with their peers. Participants were also assured of anonymity and that the information they provided would only be used to achieve academic pursuits and not for any other reason.

 

1.8 Definition of Terms

Risk Communication: It is the art used to provide an audience with accurate information that is not spun to help people make sound decisions (Fischhoff, 2011). For this study, risk communication refers to the message contained on the 18+ warning sign found on alcoholic drinks.

Risk Perception: It is an individual’s belief of the likelihood of suffering from the indicated negative effects when they indulge in a given risky behaviour (Brewer, 2004). This study sought to find out whether Students believed that they are likely to suffer from the negative effects of excessive alcohol consumption.

18+ warning sign: In this study, 18+ warning sign refer to the labels that appear on alcoholic drinks bottles like beers and canned alcoholic drinks. The label contains a message warning the consumer about the effects of excessive alcohol consumption and underage drinking.

Influence: In this study, influence refers to the behavioural or psychological effect that risk communication will have on an individual (Hak-Seon, 2012).

Alcohol Abuse: The Centre for Disease Control (CDC) defined alcohol abuse as heavy drinking (over 15 drinks per week for men and over 8 drinks per week for women), binge drinking (over 5 drinks in 2 hours for men and over 4 drinks for women) and the use of alcohol by people under the legal drinking age. In this study, excessive alcohol use refers to consuming alcohol to the point of getting drunk which may lead to dependence (WHO, 2001).





Related Project Materials

AN INVESTIGATION INTO PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF WOMEN OBJECTIFICATION IN NIGERIAN MUSIC VIDEOS

EXCERPT FROM THE STUDY

Nigeria’s entertainment media may be attempting to sustain primordial patriarchal cultural practices that pe...

Read more
IMPACTS OF HOUSING COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH

Abstract

This study was carried out on the impact of housing cooperative societies on economic growth. Housing cooperati...

Read more
INFLUENCE OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF NOMADIC FULANI GIRLS IN ADAMAWA STATE

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to determine the influence of achievement motivation and demographic characteristics on academic...

Read more
SURVEY OF CAUSES OF STUDENT’S DIFFICULTIES IN LEARNING ENGLISH LANGUAGE AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

Background to 

TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF MERCHANT BANKING IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the twenty five years of merchant banking in Nigeria. It evaluates the operation of merchant bank on eco...

Read more
MANAGEMENT OF WORKPLACE CONFLICTS IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT USING ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

Abstract

In today’s business atmosphere, conflict in the workplace is a noteworthy issue; therefore, handling conf...

Read more
INFLUENCE OF TELEVISION ADVERTISING ON CONSUMER BUYING HABITS OF GUINNESS STOUT IN IKEJA COMMUNITY OF LAGOS STATE

Background of the Study

One function of the mass media which is becoming increasingly important in the modern world is the economic funct...

Read more
THE ROLE OF MEDIATION IN THE RUSSIAN- UKRAINE CONFLICT

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to examine the role of mediation in the Russian- Ukraine ...

Read more
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF ESTABLISHING SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

It also paid attention to the foundling of the small-scale business in Nigeria. Whereas failure of the large-scale import depart...

Read more
THE IMPACT OF HEALTH CARE INSURANCE PLANS

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to examine the impact of health care insurance plans in Nigeria using L...

Read more
Share this page with your friends




whatsapp