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EVALUATION OF GLYCERINE RECOVERY FROM SPENT SOAP LYE PRODUCTION

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  • 1-4 Chapters
  • Qualitative
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  • Abstract : Available
  • Table of Content: Available
  • Reference Style: APA
  • Recommended for : Student Researchers
  • NGN 3000

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Glycerine (propan 1, 2, 3 triol) is a discovered soluble in soap lye and as a residue in crude soap following the saponification of fats and oils with caustic soda. Traditionally, the process of soap production from fats and oils provides glycerin to roughly 10% of the value of the soap created, and due to its many applications, its recovery is important to the production cost analysis for any soap making firm. Because glycerin is an essential byproduct of soap production, many small and medium-sized soap makers generally discard the lye as an undesired product.

According to Israel, Obot & Asuquo (2018), glycerol exists in nature in the form of triglycerides (fats and oils) and is obtained through the saponification of these triglycerides. This was the sole commercial method of generating glycerin until 1949, when synthetic glycerol was developed since the substance recovered as a by-product of soap production was adequate for global use. Alternatively, glycerol is produced from propene by an alternative chlorination and hydroxylation process. It is also produced by the fermentation of different carbohydrates. Propylene can also be converted into glycerine using a variety of processes. The epichlorohydrin method is the most essential; it entails chlorinating propylene to produce ally chloride, which is then oxidised with a strong base to produce epichlorohydrin. This epichlorohydrin is subsequently oxidised to produce glycerine.

Glycerine is a waste in biodiesel, thus the market for glycerol is low, and the classic epichlorohydrin procedure for glycerol synthesis is no longer commercially feasible. Fats and oils are esters of glycerine with long-chain fatty acid such as stearic acid (C17H35COOH) Palmitic acid (C15H31COOH) and oleic acid (C17H33COOH). Since glycerine contains three –OH groups, it can form three series of esters thus;

Mono-ester di-ester and tri-esters

CH2.OH CH2.OH CH2.O.OC.R

CH.OH CH.O.OC.R CH.O.OC.R

CH2.O.OC.R CH2.O.OC.R CH2.O.OC.R

Mono=-ester di-ester tri-ester

Miner, Dalton, and Kern Glycerol's principal industrial applications include the production of alkyd resins and flexible polyurethane for the plastics sector. It is also used in the production of cosmetics and adhesives. Glycerol is used in several pharmacological formulations, including glycerol phenol combination, which is used as a sedative.

According to reports, glycerol residue contains 20.2% glycerol, 6.6% fatty acids (as soap), and 64.3% salt. As a result, 91.1% of it has the potential to be valuable. It is obviously desirable, both ecologically and economically, to recover glycerol from waste soap manufacturers as a viable alternative for chemical glycerol production.




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